Regional geology

Geological regions

BGS have produced overviews of the regional geology for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. These geological summaries are intended to inform the general public of the geology in each of the regions covered. They form part of BGS's wider work on better communicating the geology of the UK but also provide information as described in the Government's response to its consultation on the process for identifying a site for a geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

BGS will play a role in helping the developer of a geological disposal facility to provide more information on the UK's geology, as explained in the Government's updated plan for implementing geological disposal.

The summaries are based on the areas used for the BGS Regional Guide publication series (see the image map). They have been written in the same format, in an easy to understand manner, and are intended to provide overviews of the geology of each of the regions covered. The summaries are stand-alone and contain a generalised geological map, cross sections ('vertical slices') through the geology and illustrations. Because of the variations in the geology and geological history in different regions the colour scheme used and the way the rock units are subdivided in individual accounts may vary.

A digital model or 'framework' of geological sections has been produced by BGS for England, Scotland and Wales. Called UK3D, it provides an understanding of the regional structure of the geology to a depth of several kilometres. It is available for free download, in several formats.

Browse the regional geological accounts

Bristol and Gloucester region 1.7MB pdf

This region is one of the most geologically varied parts of the country, with almost every geological time period represented.

Central EnglandCentral England 1.45MB pdf

Central England has a varied scenery and landscape determined by the underlying geology.

East Anglia and adjoining areasEast Anglia and adjoining areas 1.3MB pdf

East Anglia's relatively flat and rolling landscape provides a rich agricultural setting and contains an interesting geological story.

Eastern EnglandEastern England 1.34MB pdf

This region's diverse landscape comprises low-lying plains, steep ridges and upland areas.

London and the Thames ValleyLondon and the Thames Valley 1.28MB pdf

At the surface this region is formed of rocks laid down in seas that covered the area in the past.

Northern EnglandNorthern England 2.2MB pdf

Within this region a striking diversity of rocks and geological structure are present resulting from a geological history that spans almost 500 million years.

Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland 1.29MB pdf

The landscape of Northern Ireland is remarkably varied considering its relatively small area and is a reflection of the diverse geology from which it has been shaped.

South West EnglandSouth West England 2MB pdf

The near-surface geology of the region is well known due to the many quarries, mines, coastal cliffs and shallow boreholes.

The Hampshire Basin and adjoining areasThe Hampshire Basin and adjoining areas 1.65MB pdf

Geologically this region forms the western part of a deep basin filled with sediments laid down in ancient seas.

The Pennines and adjacent areasThe Pennines and adjacent areas 1.45MB pdf

Geology influences many aspects of the varied countryside and land-use of this region.

The Wealden districtThe Wealden district 864kB pdf

This region is mainly formed of rocks laid down in seas that covered the area in the past.

The Welsh BorderlandThe Welsh Borderland 945kB pdf

The Welsh Borders region contains a broad range of rock types and ages, exposing some of the oldest rocks in Britain.

WalesWales 1.98MB pdf

The geology near the surface is well known from abundant natural outcrops of rock, such as coastal cliffs and mountain crags, as well as quarries and mines.

Other downloads

Bristol and Gloucester region Central England East Anglia and adjoining areas Eastern England London and the Thames Valley Northern England Northern Ireland South West England The Hampshire Basin and adjoining areas The Hampshire Basin and adjoining areas The Pennines and adjacent areas The Wealden district The Welsh Borderland Wales Wales