Icelandic/Íslenska translationGlacier monitoring: BGS observatory at Virkisjökull, Iceland

The BGS operate an observatory site at Virkisjökull in south-east Iceland, studying the evolution of the glacier and the surrounding landscape and their responses to regional climate.

Sensors at the site are constantly collecting climate and seismic data. Repeated high resolution surveys study how both the glacier and land surface, and the deposits beneath, change over time.

We are using cutting-edge technologies, not used in such a combination anywhere else in the world. These give unique insights into:

  • processes of landscape formation
  • responses of glacial systems to climate forcing

NERC's first Open Access article came from our project: Recent, very rapid retreat of a temperate glacier in SE Iceland 3.4 MB Open Access publication pdf

Virkisjökull: a glacier in decline

Satellite image of the Oraefajökull ice cap, from which Virkisjökull drains towards the west.

Virkisjökull is retreating rapidly, like most glaciers in Iceland. Since 1996, the glacier margin has retreated nearly 500 m, and it appears that this rate has accelerated over the last five years.

Why is this important?

Globally, glaciers and ice sheets help to regulate Earth's climate:

  • they are highly reflective, bouncing large amounts of solar energy back into space, keeping the Earth cooler
  • in many countries including Iceland, glaciers are a major source of water, both for domestic use, and for power generation
  • melting glaciers can cause large-scale flooding, which affects roads and other infrastructure

Observatory science

What techniques are the BGS using?Virkisjökull Observatory: equipment and installations

We interpret the combined results of constant monitoring, using automatic systems, plus field surveying of land-surface change, glacier hydrology, and evolution of the shallow subsurface.


Contact Jez Everest for further information